From the earliest formalizations of glider circuit planning the “ideal” circuit was visualized as being rectangular with the downwind leg parallel to the approach direction and base leg at right angles to these two.
Heights and distance varied with glider types and instructors perceptions of required safety margins. Generally, nowadays we work around ...more
High Altitude Physiology or High on Oxygen
Among the problems encountered with flying high, such as extreme cold, reference to ground features, true vs. indicated airspeed etc, the most significant risk to the pilot is posed by hypoxia, a cellular deficiency of oxygen.
In a healthy individual the brain is unfortunately the organ most sensitive to hypoxia. ...more